CO2 Not So Much, 60 Year Cycle Paper Actually Got Published

Reblogged from Musings from the Chiefio:

The article is cited in a couple of other places. I ran into it here:

https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2019/01/13/geoscientists-reconstruct-eye-opening-900-year-northeast-climate-record/

Where Tallbloke points to the Elsevier / Science Direct origin (where it is paywalled…)

This supports the idea that temperature cycles in the region of 60 years are very likely a common feature of Earth’s climate.

Deploying a new technique for the first time in the region, geoscientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have reconstructed the longest and highest-resolution climate record for the Northeastern United States, which reveals previously undetected past temperature cycles and extends the record 900 years into the past, well beyond the previous early date of 1850, reports Phys.org.

And points at the description of the article at phys.org:

https://phys.org/news/2019-01-geoscientists-reconstruct-eye-opening-year-northeast.html

As Miller explains, they used a relatively new quantitative method based on the presence of chemical compounds known as branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetra ethers (branched GDGTs) found in lakes, soils, rivers and peat bogs around the world. The compounds can provide an independent terrestrial paleo-thermometer that accurately assesses past temperature variability.

Miller says, “This is the first effort using these compounds to reconstruct temperature in the Northeast, and the first one at this resolution.” He and colleagues were able to collect a total of 136 samples spanning the 900-year time span, many more than would be available with more traditional methods and from other locations that typically yield just one sample per 30-100 years.

I make that about a 6 2/3 year long duration per sample. So 9 samples per 60+ year cycle. A bit coarse but it ought to resolve with 4 to 5 samples per arc of excursion.

I find it a bit amusing that they are all worked up about having rediscovered the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age; but OK, at least we’re finally getting back to reality. They are amazed at the “new” finding of the same 60ish year cycle that has been found just about everywhere anyone actually looks for it. OK… All bolding by me.

In their results, Miller says, “We see essentially cooling throughout most of the record until the 1900s, which matches other paleo-records for North America. We see the Medieval Warm Period in the early part and the Little Ice Age in the 1800s.” An unexpected observation was 10, 50-to-60-year temperature cycles not seen before in records from Northeast U.S., he adds, “a new finding and surprising. We’re trying to figure out what causes that. It may be caused by changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation or some other atmospheric patterns. We’ll be looking further into it.”

He adds, “We’re very excited about this. I think it’s a great story of how grad students who come up with a promising idea, if they have enough support from their advisors, can produce a study with really eye-opening results.” Details appear in a recent issue of the European Geophysical Union’s open-access online journal, Climate of the Past.

The authors point out that paleo-temperature reconstructions are essential for distinguishing human-made climate change from natural variability, but historical temperature records are not long enough to capture pre-human-impact variability. Further, using conventional pollen- and land-based sediment samples as climate proxies can reflect confounding parameters rather than temperature, such as precipitation, humidity, evapo-transpiration and vegetation changes.

Or put more succinctly, our thermometer record is short and lousy and our proxy record is pretty damn poor too.

Then TallBloke also points at a couple of other links. Here’s the paywall:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825216300277

Anthropogenic CO2 warming challenged by 60-year cycle

Author François Gervais

Abstract

Time series of sea-level rise are fitted by a sinusoid of period ~ 60 years, confirming the cycle reported for the global mean temperature of the earth. This cycle appears in phase with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The last maximum of the sinusoid coincides with the temperature plateau observed since the end of the 20th century. The onset of declining phase of AMO, the recent excess of the global sea ice area anomaly and the negative slope of global mean temperature measured by satellite from 2002 to 2015, all these indicators sign for the onset of the declining phase of the 60-year cycle. Once this cycle is subtracted from observations, the transient climate response is revised downwards consistent with latest observations, with latest evaluations based on atmospheric infrared absorption and with a general tendency of published climate sensitivity. The enhancement of the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal oscillations which is found up to 71% faster than the atmospheric CO2 increase, focus on earth greening and benefit for crops yields of the supplementary photosynthesis, further minimizing the consequences of the tiny anthropogenic contribution to warming.

I found a non-paywall copy up here:

http://www.skyfall.fr/wp-content/2016/05/Earth-Science-Reviews_FG_2016-.pdf

So download your copy while you can…

A nice summary of other 60 year-ish cycle evidence in this link also from TallBloke:
http://appinsys.com/globalwarming/SixtyYearCycle.htm

So what are these “branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers”?
Found that answer here:

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2010JG001365

From their Figure 2:

GDGTs

GDGTs

Strange things made in the membrane of various microbes in the water column that change with the temperature.

From the actual paper intro:

A cycle of period ~60 years has been reported in global mean temperature of the earth (Schlesinger and Ramankutty, 1994; Ogurtsov et al., 2002; Klyashtorin and Lyubushin, 2003; Loehle, 2004; Zhen-Shan and Xian, 2007; Carvalo et al., 2007; Swanson and Tsonis, 2009; Scafetta, 2009; Akasofu, 2010; D’Aleo and Easterbrook, 2010; Loehle and Scafetta, 2011; Humlum et al., 2011; Chambers et al., 2012; Lüdecke et al., 2013; Courtillot et al., 2013; Akasofu, 2013; Macias et al., 2014; Ogurtsov et al., 2015). This cycle and others of smaller amplitude were found to be correlated with the velocity of the motion of
the sun with respect to the center of mass of the solar system (Scafetta, 2009). This cycle is also in phase with AMO index (Knudsen et al., 2011; McCarthy et al., 2015).
Section 2 will search for additional signatures of this 60-year cycle in major components and sensitive indicators of climate. The impact on climate of the CO2 emitted by burning of fossil fuels is a long-standing debate illustrated by 1637 papers found in the Web of Science by crossing the keywords

[anthropogenic] AND [greenhouse OR CO2] AND [warming]

This is to be compared to more than 1350 peer-reviewed papers which express reservations about dangerous anthropogenic CO2 warming and/or insist on the natural variability of climate (Andrew,2014). The transient climate response (TCR) is defined as the change in global mean surface temperature at the time of doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The range of uncertainty reported by AR5 (2013) is very wide, 1–2.5 °C. More recent evaluations, later than the publication of AR5 (2013), focus on low values lying between 0.6 °Cand 1.4 °C (Harde, 2014; Lewis and Curry, 2014; Skeie et al., 2014; Lewis, 2015). The infrared absorption of CO2 is well documented since the availability of wide-band infrared spectrometry (Ångström, 1900).

OMG! Actually talking about solar motion and AMO connections! Next thing you know they will discover the lunar cycle involvement and how tides are directly shifting the ocean and air flows as part of those celestial motions…

The intro then goes into a discussion of the IR spectra and transmission where it finds the approved models lacking and also finds that yes, Virginia, we have had a pause in temperature rises…

The controversy has reached a novel phase because, contrary to CMIP3 and CMIP5 warming projections (AR5, 2013), global mean temperatures at the surface of the earth display a puzzling « plateau » or « pause » or « hiatus » since the end of the last century (McKitrick, 2014). This hiatus seems to have encouraged climate modelers to refrain from exaggerated warming projections.

The paper is full of many such goodies. It goes on to find a large 60 year cycle effect and a very muted CO2 effect.

Skipping down to the summary:

Dangerous anthropogenic warming is questioned (i) upon recognition of the large amplitude of the natural 60–year cyclic component and (ii) upon revision downwards of the transient climate response consistent with latest tendencies shown in Fig. 1, here found to be at most 0.6 °C once the natural component has been removed, consistent with latest infrared studies (Harde, 2014). Anthropogenic warming well below the potentially dangerous range were reported in older and recent studies (Idso, 1998; Miskolczi, 2007; Paltridge et al., 2009; Gerlich and Tscheuschner, 2009; Lindzen and Choi, 2009, 2011; Spencer and Braswell, 2010; Clark, 2010; Kramm and Dlugi, 2011; Lewis and Curry, 2014; Skeie et al., 2014; Lewis, 2015; Volokin and ReLlez, 2015). On inspection of a risk of anthropogenic warming thus toned down, a change of paradigm which highlights a benefit for mankind related to the increase of plant feeding and crops yields by enhanced CO2 photosynthesis is suggested.

I strongly recommend a download and careful reading of the paper.

The credibility gap between predicted and observed global warming

Reblogged from Watts Up With That:

By Christopher Monckton of Brenchley

The prolonged el Niño of 2016-2017, not followed by a la Niña, has put paid to the great Pause of 18 years 9 months in global warming that gave us all such entertainment while it lasted. However, as this annual review of global temperature change will show, the credibility gap between predicted and observed warming remains wide, even after some increasingly desperate and more or less openly prejudiced ever-upward revisions of recent temperatures and ever-downward depressions in the temperatures of the early 20th century in most datasets with the effect of increasing the apparent rate of global warming. For the Pause continues to exert its influence by keeping down the long-run rate of global warming.

Let us begin with IPCC’s global warming predictions. In 2013 it chose four scenarios, one of which, RCP 8.5, was stated by its authors (Riahi et al, 2007; Rao & Riahi, 2006) to be a deliberately extreme scenario and is based upon such absurd population and energy-use criteria that it may safely be ignored.

For the less unreasonable, high-end-of-plausible RCP 6.0 scenario, the 21st-century net anthropogenic radiative forcing is 3.8 Watts per square meter from 2000-2100:

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CO2 concentration of 370 ppmv in 2000 was predicted to rise to 700 ppmv in 2100 (AR5, fig. 8.5) on the RCP 6.0 scenario (thus, the centennial predicted CO2 forcing is 4.83 ln(700/370), or 3.1 Watts per square meter, almost five-sixths of total forcing). Predicted centennial reference sensitivity (i.e., warming before accounting for feedback) is the product of 3.8 Watts per square meter and the Planck sensitivity parameter 0.3 Kelvin per Watt per square meter: i.e., 1.15 K.

The CMIP5 models predict 3.37 K midrange equilibrium sensitivity to CO2 doubling (Andrews+ 2012), against 1 K reference sensitivity before accounting for feedback, implying a midrange transfer function 3.37 / 1 = 3.37. The transfer function, the ratio of equilibrium to reference temperature, encompasses by definition the entire operation of feedback on climate.

Therefore, the 21st-century warming that IPCC should be predicting, on the RCP 6.0 scenario and on the basis of its own estimates of CO2 concentration and the models’ estimates of CO2 forcing and Charney sensitivity, is 3.37 x 1.15, or 3.9 K.

Yet IPCC actually predicts only 1.4 to 3.1 K 21st-century warming on the RCP 6.0 scenario, giving a midrange estimate of just 2.2 K warming in the 21st century and implying a transfer function of 2.2 / 1.15 = 1.9, little more than half the midrange transfer function 3.37 implicit in the equilibrium-sensitivity projections of the CMIP5 ensemble.

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Note that Fig. 2 disposes of any notion that global warming is “settled science”. IPCC, taking all the scenarios and hedging its bets, is predicting somewhere between 0.2 K cooling and 4.5 K warming by 2100. Its best estimate is its RCP 6.0 midrange estimate 2.2 K.

Effectively, therefore, given 1 K reference sensitivity to doubled CO2, IPCC’s 21st-century warming prediction implies 1.9 K Charney sensitivity (the standard metric for climate-sensitivity studies, which is equilibrium sensitivity to doubled CO2 after all short-acting feedbacks have operated), and not the 3.4 [2.1, 4.7] K imagined by the CMIP5 models.

Since official predictions are thus flagrantly inconsistent with one another, it is difficult to deduce from them a benchmark midrange value for the warming officially predicted for the 21st century. It is somewhere between the 2.2 K that IPCC gives as its RCP 6.0 midrange estimate and the 3.9 K deducible from IPCC’s midrange estimate of 21st-century anthropogenic forcing using the midrange CMIP5 transfer function.

So much for the predictions. But what is actually happening, and does observed warming match prediction? Here are the observed rates of warming in the 40 years 1979-2018. Let us begin with GISS, which suggests that for 40 years the world has warmed at a rate equivalent not to 3.9 C°/century nor even to 2.2 C°/century, but only to 1.7 C°/century.

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Next, NCEI. Here, perhaps to make a political point, the dataset is suddenly unavailable:

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Next, HadCRUT4, IPCC’s preferred dataset. The University of East Anglia is rather leisurely in updating its information, so the 40-year period runs from December 1978 to November 2018, but the warming rate is identical to that of GISS, at 1.7 C°/century equivalent, below the RCP 6.0 midrange 2.2 C°/century rate.

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Next, the satellite lower-troposphere trends, first from RSS. It is noticeable that, ever since RSS, whose chief scientist publicly describes those who disagree with him about the climate as “deniers”, revised its dataset to eradicate the Pause, it has tended to show the fastest apparent rate of global warming, now at 2 C°/century equivalent.

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Finally, UAH, which Professor Ole Humlum (climate4you.com) regards as the gold standard for global temperature records. Before UAH altered its dataset, it used to show more warming than the others. Now it shows the least, at 1.3 C°/century equivalent.

clip_image014

How much global warming should have occurred over the 40 years since the satellite record began in 1979? CO2 concentration has risen by 72 ppmv. The period CO2 forcing is thus 0.94 W m–2, implying 0.94 x 6/5 = 1.13 W m–2 net anthropogenic forcing from all sources. Accordingly, period reference sensitivity is 1.13 x 0.3, or 0.34 K, and period equilibrium sensitivity, using the CMIP5 midrange transfer function 3.37, should have been 1.14 K. Yet the observed period warming was 0.8 K (RSS), 0.7 K (GISS & HadCRUT4) or 0.5 K (UAH): a mean observed warming of about 0.7 K.

A more realistic picture may be obtained by dating the calculation from 1950, when our influence first became appreciable. Here is the HadCRUT4 record:

clip_image016

The CO2 forcing since 1950 is 4.83 ln(410/310), or 1.5 Watts per square meter, which becomes 1.8 Watts per square meter after allowing for non-CO2 anthropogenic forcings, a value consistent with IPCC (2013, Fig. SPM.5). Therefore, period reference sensitivity from 1950-2018 is 1.8 x 0.3, or 0.54 K, while the equivalent equilibrium sensitivity, using the CMIP5 midrange transfer function 3.37, is 0.54 x 3.37 = 1.8 K, of which only 0.8 K actually occurred. Using the revised transfer function 1.9 derived from the midrange predicted RCP 6.0 predicted warming, the post-1950 warming should have been 0.54 x 1.9 = 1.0 K.

It is also worth showing the Central England Temperature Record for the 40 years 1694-1733, long before SUVs, during which the temperature in most of England rose at a rate equivalent to 4.33 C°/century, compared with just 1.7 C°/century equivalent in the 40 years 1979-2018. Therefore, the current rate of warming is not unprecedented.

It is evident from this record that even the large and naturally-occurring temperature change evident not only in England but worldwide as the Sun recovered following the Maunder minimum is small compared with the large annual fluctuations in global temperature.

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The simplest way to illustrate the very large discrepancy between predicted and observed warming over the past 40 years is to show the results on a dial.

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Overlapping projections by IPCC (yellow & buff zones) and CMIP5 (Andrews et al. 2012: buff & orange zones) of global warming from 1850-2011 (dark blue scale), 1850 to 2xCO2 (dark red scale) and 1850-2100 (black scale) exceed observed warming of 0.75 K from 1850-2011 (HadCRUT4), which falls between the 0.7 K period reference sensitivity to midrange net anthropogenic forcing in IPCC (2013, fig. SPM.5) (cyan needle) and expected 0.9  K period equilibrium sensitivity to that forcing after adjustment for radiative imbalance (Smith et al. 2015) (blue needle). The CMIP5 models’ midrange projection of 3.4 K Charney sensitivity (red needle) is about thrice the value consistent with observation. The revised interval of global-warming predictions (green zone), correcting an error of physics in models, whose feedbacks do not respond to emission temperature, is visibly close to observed warming.

Footnote: I undertook to report on the progress of my team’s paper explaining climatology’s error of physics in omitting from its feedback calculation the observable fact that the Sun is shining. The paper was initially rejected early last year on the ground that the editor of the top-ten journal to which it was sent could not find anyone competent to review it. We simplified the paper, whereupon it was sent out and, after many months’ delay, only two reviews came back. The first was a review of a supporting document giving results of experiments conducted at a government laboratory, but it was clear that the reviewer had not actually read the laboratory’s report, which answered the question the reviewer had raised. The second was ostensibly a review of the paper, but the reviewer stated that, because he found the paper’s conclusions uncongenial he had not troubled to read the equations that justified those conclusions.

We protested. The editor then obtained a third review. But that, like the previous two reviews, was not a review of the present paper. It was a review of another paper that had been submitted to a different journal the previous year. All of the points raised by that review had long since been comprehensively answered. None of the three reviewers, therefore, had actually read the paper they were ostensibly reviewing.

Nevertheless, the editor saw fit to reject the paper. Next, the journal’s management got in touch to say that it was hoped we were content with the rejection and to invite us to submit further papers in future. I replied that we were not at all satisfied with the rejection, for the obvious reason that none of the reviewers had actually read the paper that the editor had rejected, and that we insisted, therefore, on being given a right of appeal.

The editor agreed to send out the paper for review again, and to choose the reviewers with greater care this time. We suggested, and the editor accepted, that in view of the difficulty the reviewers were having in getting to grips with the point at issue, which was clearly catching them by surprise, we should add to the paper a comprehensive mathematical proof that the transfer function that embodies the entire action of feedback on climate is expressible not only as the ratio of equilibrium sensitivity after feedback to reference sensitivity before feedback but also as the ratio of the entire, absolute equilibrium temperature to the entire, absolute reference temperature.

We said we should explain in more detail that, though the equations for both climatology’s transfer function and ours are valid equations, climatology’s equation is not useful because even small uncertainties in the sensitivities, which are two orders of magnitude smaller than the absolute temperatures, lead to large uncertainty in the value of the transfer function, while even large uncertainties in the absolute temperatures lead to small uncertainty in the transfer function, which can thus be very simply and very reliably derived and constrained without using general-circulation models.

My impression is that the editor has realized we are right. We are waiting for a new section from our professor of control theory on the derivation of the transfer function from the energy-balance equation via a leading-order Taylor-series expansion. That will be with us at the end of the month, and the editor will then send the paper out for review again. I’ll keep you posted. If we’re right, Charney sensitivity (equilibrium sensitivity to doubled CO2) will be 1.2 [1.1, 1.3] C°, far too little to matter, and not, as the models currently imagine, 3.4 [2.1, 4.7] C°, and that, scientifically speaking, will be the end of the climate scam.

What Proof Our Climate is Warming?

Science Matters

This is a reblog of a post at Manhattan Contrarian How Do You Tell If The Earth’s Climate System “Is Warming”? Excerpts in italics with my bolds

Back in August I had a post by the title of “How Do You Tell If The Earth’s Climate System “Is Warming”? The post took note of the fact that, with a time series (like for temperature) that fluctuates up and down, you can always give a presentation that makes the trend look to be whatever you want it to be, so long as you get to pick the start date. If you want to make it look like the trend is up, you pick a start date where the value of the series is low; and if you want to make it look like the trend is down, you pick a start date where the value of the series is…

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UK Climate Trends – 2018

NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE KNOW THAT

By Paul Homewood

UK Mean temperature - Annual

https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/summaries/actualmonthly

The Met Office has now published its data for 2018. We can expect plenty of claims about last year being the 7th warmest in the UK since records began (in 1910). Or that all of the ten warmest years have occurred this century.

The real significance of these latest numbers, however, is that they continue to confirm that UK temperatures stopped rising more than a decade ago, after a step up during the 1990s.

As the 10-year averages below indicate, UK temperatures have been stable for some time, and arguably are now beginning to drop back:

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Denied

From Clive Best:

I have just finished reading the book ‘Denied’ by Richard Black, the director of the Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit (ECIU) and ex-BBC environment editor. It is well written and easy to read. He claims to demolish the climate “contrarian” and climate “denier” positions on climate change and renewable energy. As far as I can work out contrarians are lukewarmers who accept the science but argue that any future warming will be far less damaging than the consequences of overreacting to it right now, while ‘deniers’ argue that CO2 can have no effect on the climate at all. His main targets in the book are the usual suspects: the GWPF, Nigel Lawson, Matt Ridley, Christopher Brooker, James Delingpole, Judith Curry and anyone else who dissents from mainstream climate and green energy orthodoxy. Richard is also upset with the BBC for interviewing Nigel Lawson on the Today programme, and with various newspapers for giving Brooker, Delingpole or David Rose any column space. In this vein then I too should be placed in the Contrarian camp, particularly concerning renewable energy policy.

Richard however does acknowledge that climate gate exposed a certain amount of sculduggery within the climate science community and because climate gate also coincided with a 15y pause in global warming, the position of sceptics back in 2014 was actually very strong and put climate scientists onto the back foot. The chapter in AR5 discussing this warming hiatus reflects this defensiveness. However,  by the end of 2018 Richard argues in his book that consequent events have now demolished all those contrarian or “denier” arguments and therefore these opinions should now be denied any undue influence in determining future climate policy. His main arguments for this are:

  1. Warming has continued as expected and the pause never actually happened. Temperature data are now compatible with model ‘projections’.
  2. Prices of new off-shore wind capacity and of solar panels have dropped so dramatically that they are competitive or cheaper than Nuclear and Gas. So objecting to green energy is illogical
  3. The new SR15 report has highlighted the need for  immediate action to close down fossil fuels as soon as possible and invest in ‘clean’ energy. Shale Gas is an illusion

Let’s look at each claim in turn.

  1. The Pause is no more.

Here is the original plot from AR5 showing a comparison of four major temperature datasets versus CMIP5 model projections.

hiatus-ar5-1024x482
Fig 1. AR5 Comparison of global temperature anomalies with CMIP5 models

In 2012 all the major temperature sets (HadCRUT, GISS,NCDC) showed no year warmer than the El Nino year 1998. Furthermore the trend was dropping below model predictions. Since then a huge effort has been made to add new weather stations in Arctic regions where warming is fastest and to improve the spatial coverage averaging.

Fig 2. How the pause ‘disappeared’ .

HadCRUT4.6 has about 2000 more stations than HadCRUT3 did in 2012, but also dropped some stations in S. America (they were cooling). Temperature homogenisation on land and oceans has also had a net warming effect, although quite why seems to be a bit of a mystery. The method of spatial averaging also has an important net effect on the global temperature. Cowtan & Way used kriging to infill empty regions, whereas I use a 3D spherical triangulation to provide natural global coverage. The results are almost identical.

What is interesting though is that the flat trend prior to 2014 has now disappeared in HadCRUT4.6 which uses the same averaging procedure throughout. So this must be due to ongoing data corrections and to all the new stations added consequently. Each new monthly release of data shows that earlier values of global temperatures also get updated. Data homogenisation is a continuing process updating past measurements as well as new ones. Note however that temperatures have been falling for the last two years following the the 2016 El Nino peak. If 2019 continues this cooling trend the pause or hiatus in warming could well return.

2. Falling prices of renewable energy.

Recent auctions for new off-shore wind farm capacity  “Contracts for difference”  have reached as low as £57:50/MWh for 15 years , apparently undercutting both new gas and  the Hinkley C price £92/MWh for 35 years.  So if the price of new wind and solar generation is so cheap why don’t we just buy more of it? The problem of course is that we are not comparing like with like. Although Hinkley is very expensive (consequent nuclear stations should strike a much lower price) it is still cheaper than the London Array  which receives £150/MWh, but the main difference is that nuclear is predictable. Nuclear provides constant base load power which can in the future be used for charging EVs overnight. Wind energy is fickle and may or may not be available to meet peak demand, and this inherent unreliability will not change in the future. Other advantages of nuclear over wind are

  • that its environmental footprint is tiny
  • that it lasts 3 times as long as wind farms (60 years as opposed to 20 years)

Solar Energy makes little sense in Britain because it produces no power in winter. Annual peak demand is around 5pm during winter evenings when solar output is zero. So if energy security is your goal then  solar power is useless no matter how cheap the price falls. The only thing going for it is that  it can displace fossil generation during summer months thereby reducing CO2 emissions if that is the goal, but this then increases the overall energy cost.

3. Urgent action to avoid climate disaster.

How realistic is it to expect the world to cut carbon emissions in half by 2030 and eliminate them by 2050 to meet the 1.5C target? If we get it wrong by acting too soon then we don’t get a second chance because we destroy our economies in the attempt. David Mackay said we need a plan that works for the UK. Similarly each country needs a plan that works for its particular environment. To get to zero carbon we also have to electrify both transport and heating. This means that electricity peak demand will increase to  about 90GW. The problem then is that this increased demand must be reliably met on cold winter evenings or people will die.  Does Richard Black imagine that by expanding wind power alone one could achieve this goal, or that somehow battery storage might cover such wind lulls ?  Last night is a good example of the problems we already face after installing well over 20GW of wind capacity and over 30GW of solar capacity.

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Renewables simply cannot provide energy security. Nor can some magic smart grid or energy storage system cover several day long wind lulls  affecting Northern Europe each winter.  So given that we must provide power 24/7 to maintain modern life then the only realistic low carbon solution is nuclear power. Roughly 30 identical Hinkley sized nuclear plants would do the job nicely. I doubt whether Richard Black not his ECIU would agree with that.  I wonder who might eventually be called an energy denier?

The book is a good read though 😉

UK Paper Claims Pause Never Happened

sunshine hours

The Daily Mail says:

Global warming is WORSE than we thought because the famous ‘pause’ between 1995 and 2013 never happened, claim experts

The UAH satellite data says otherwise.

Of course there are many global temperature sets and most have eradicated the pause.

But even the IPCC discussed “the pause” back in 2013.

And the Daily Mail wrote about it.

“Yet the leaked report makes the extraordinary concession that over the past 15 years, recorded world temperatures have increased at only a quarter of the rate of IPCC claimed when it published its last assessment in 2007.

Back then, it said observed warming over the 15 years from 1990-2005 had taken place at a rate of 0.2C per decade, and it predicted this would continue for the following 20 years, on the basis of forecasts made by computer climate models.

But the new report says the observed warming over…

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How Can So Many Scientists Be So Wrong About The Pause?

NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE KNOW THAT

By Paul Homewood

From GWPF:

image

Using simple statistics it looked at and dismissed over 200 peer-reviewed papers that analysed the pause and concluded it was a real phenomenon. How did they, and the IPCC, get it all so wrong?

Source: Clive Best

Nobody who keeps an eye on climate research will be at all surprised by this “new” paper. Its conclusions were well aired in April 2018 at a meeting of the European Geophysical Union.

The authors must have been rather frustrated at the time as the paper describing their work had been submitted to the journal Environmental Research Letters over a year earlier, in February 2017 in fact, still had not been published. This was remedied a few days ago when it was finally published — one year and nine months after its submission!

The tone of this paper is established at the start with a quote about…

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N. Atlantic SST Plunging

Science Matters

RAPID Array measuring North Atlantic SSTs.

For the last few years, observers have been speculating about when the North Atlantic will start the next phase shift from warm to cold.

Source: Energy and Education Canada

An example is this report in May 2015 The Atlantic is entering a cool phase that will change the world’s weather by Gerald McCarthy and Evan Haigh of the RAPID Atlantic monitoring project. Excerpts in italics with my bolds.

This is known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the transition between its positive and negative phases can be very rapid. For example, Atlantic temperatures declined by 0.1ºC per decade from the 1940s to the 1970s. By comparison, global surface warming is estimated at 0.5ºC per century – a rate twice as slow.

In many parts of the world, the AMO has been linked with decade-long temperature and rainfall trends. Certainly – and perhaps…

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November 2018 global temperature falls 0.12C

Reblogged from CliveBest.com:

Global averaged surface temperature for November 2018 was 0.63C using my spherical triangulation method merging GHCNV3 with HadSST3. This is a fall of 0.12C since October. The baseline used is always 1961-1990.

Monthly-Nov-2018-768x431

With just one month to go this ensures that 2018 will be the 4th warmest year, continuing the slow recovery from the super El Nino year in 2016.

Annual-Nov-2018-768x452

North America was exceedingly cold in November

Nov3D-2018

 

Prediction of the Strength and Timing of Sunspot Cycle 25 Reveal Decadal-scale Space Environmental Conditions

Reblogged from Watts Up With That:

Prediction of the Strength and Timing of Sunspot Cycle 25 Reveal Decadal-scale Space Environmental Conditions

Prantika Bhowmik1 and Dibyendu Nandy1,2,*
1Center of Excellence in Space Sciences India, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal, India 2Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal, India *Corresponding author: dnandi@iiserkol.ac.in
ABSTRACT

The Sun’s activity cycle governs the radiation, particle and magnetic flux in the heliosphere creating hazardous space weather. Decadal-scale variations define space climate and force the Earth’s atmosphere. However, predicting the solar cycle is challenging. Current understanding indicates a short window for prediction best achieved at previous cycle minima. Utilizing magnetic field evolution models for the Sun’s surface and interior we perform the first century-scale, data-driven simulations of solar activity and present a scheme for extending the prediction window to a decade. Our ensemble forecast indicates cycle 25 would be similar or slightly stronger than the current cycle and peak around 2024. Sunspot cycle 25 may thus reverse the substantial weakening trend in solar activity which has led to speculation of an imminent Maunder-like grand minimum and cooling global climate. Our simulations demonstrate fluctuation in the tilt angle distribution of sunspots is the dominant mechanism responsible for solar cycle variability.

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HT/Leif Svalgaard